Home ยป GST Impact on the Middle Class in India

GST Impact on the Middle Class in India

by gaurav gupta

The Goods and Services Tax (GST) was introduced in India on July 1, 2017, with the goal of simplifying the country’s complex and fragmented tax system. GST unified multiple indirect taxes into a single tax, making it easier for businesses to comply with tax regulations. However, the impact of GST extends beyond businesses and has significant implications for the middle class in India. This article explores how GST has affected the middle class, focusing on changes in prices of goods and services, household expenses, and overall economic implications.

Simplification of Tax Structure

Before GST, the tax system in India was convoluted, with various taxes like Central Excise Duty, Service Tax, Value Added Tax (VAT), and a multitude of state-level taxes. This complexity often resulted in cascading taxes, where tax was levied on tax, increasing the overall cost of goods and services. GST replaced these multiple taxes with a single, unified tax, which aimed to eliminate the cascading effect and make the tax structure more transparent.

For the middle class, this simplification means fewer hidden taxes and a clearer understanding of the taxes they pay. However, the actual impact on their expenses varies depending on the specific goods and services they consume.

Changes in Prices of Goods and Services

GST has different tax rates for various goods and services, categorized into five main slabs: 0%, 5%, 12%, 18%, and 28%. The impact on prices depends on the category into which a particular item falls.

Essential Goods

Many essential goods, such as food grains, fresh fruits, and vegetables, are either exempt from GST or fall under the lower tax slabs. This has helped keep the prices of basic necessities relatively stable, benefiting the middle class. Items like milk, cereals, and bread are exempt from GST, ensuring that these staples remain affordable.

Consumer Goods and Services

The impact of GST on consumer goods and services has been mixed. For some items, the GST rate is lower than the previous combined tax rates, leading to a decrease in prices. For example, household appliances and electronics, which previously attracted a higher combined tax rate, have seen some price reduction under GST.

On the other hand, items falling under the highest GST slab of 28%, such as luxury goods, automobiles, and certain consumer electronics, have become more expensive. This has impacted the middle class’s ability to purchase higher-end products and luxury items.


Services like banking, insurance, and telecommunications, which previously attracted a service tax of 15%, now fall under the 18% GST slab. This increase in tax rate has led to higher costs for these services. The middle class, which relies heavily on these services, has experienced an increase in their monthly expenses.

Impact on Household Expenses

The overall impact of GST on household expenses for the middle class is a combination of reduced costs for some items and increased costs for others. While the simplification of the tax system is a positive change, the higher GST rates on services and certain goods have led to increased monthly expenses for many middle-class families.

Real Estate and Housing

The real estate sector has also been impacted by GST. Under the previous tax regime, homebuyers had to pay various taxes such as VAT, Service Tax, and Stamp Duty, which varied from state to state. GST has simplified this by introducing a unified tax rate of 5% on under-construction properties, excluding the cost of land. For affordable housing projects, the GST rate is even lower at 1%.

This has brought some clarity and transparency to the home buying process. However, the middle class still faces challenges due to the high cost of real estate in urban areas, and the overall benefit of GST in this sector is still debated.

Compliance and Administrative Ease

One of the key benefits of GST for the middle class is the reduction in tax evasion and the resulting increase in government revenue. This increase in revenue can be used for public services and infrastructure, indirectly benefiting the middle class. Additionally, the unified tax system reduces the administrative burden on businesses, which can lead to lower prices for consumers in the long run.

Economic Growth and Job Creation

GST is expected to boost economic growth by creating a more business-friendly environment. This, in turn, can lead to job creation and better employment opportunities for the middle class. A more robust economy can result in higher incomes and improved standards of living for middle-class families.

Challenges and Concerns

Despite the benefits, the middle class has faced several challenges due to GST. The transition to the new tax regime led to initial confusion and disruption in the market. The increase in tax rates for certain services and goods has also strained household budgets. Moreover, the complexity of filing GST returns and compliance requirements has been a burden for small business owners within the middle class.


The implementation of GST has brought both positive and negative impacts on the middle class in India. While the simplification of the tax structure and elimination of cascading taxes are significant advantages, the increased cost of services and certain goods has posed challenges. Over time, as the economy adjusts to the new tax regime, the middle class may experience more substantial benefits from economic growth and improved public services.

Overall, GST represents a significant step towards a more transparent and efficient tax system, but its success in benefiting the middle class will depend on continued efforts to refine and improve the system to address their specific needs and concerns.

Related Posts

Marketmillion logo

MarketMillion is an online webpage that provides business news, tech, telecom, digital marketing, auto news, and website reviews around World.

Contact us: [email protected]

@2022 – MarketMillion. All Right Reserved. Designed by Techager Team